1. Japanese have always loved fresh fish🐠 🐟🐠🐟

But the water close to Japan has not held many fish🐠🐟 for decades.

2. So to feed the Japanese population, fishing boats got bigger and went farther than ever.

The further the fishermen went, the longer it took to bring the fish🐠🐟🐠🐟

If the return trip took more time, the fish 🐠🐟🐠🐟 were not fresh.

3. To solve this problem, fish 🐠🐟 companies installed freezers on their boats.

They would catch the fish 🐠🐟 and freeze them at sea.

Freezers allowed the boats to go farther and stay longer.

However, the Japanese could taste the difference between fresh and frozen fish🐠🐟 and they did not like the taste of frozen fish 🐠🐟

The frozen fish🐠🐟 brought a lower price.

4. So, fishing companies installed fish tanks.

They would catch the fish 🐠🐟 and stuff them in the tanks, fin to fin.

After a little thrashing around, they were tired, dull, and lost their fresh-fish taste.

The fishing industry faced an impending crisis!

5. But today, they get fresh-tasting fish to Japan.

How did they manage…?

6. To keep the fish🐠🐟🐠 tasting fresh, the Japanese fishing companies still put the fish🐠🐟🐠 in the tanks but with a small shark🐋🐋

The fish🐠🐟🐠are challenged and hence are constantly on the move.

The challenge they face keeps them alive and fresh!

Have you realized that some of us are also living in a pond but most of the time tired and dull….?


1. Basically in our lives, sharks 🐋🐋 are new challenges to keep us active.

2. If you are steadily conquering
challenges, you are happy.

3. Your challenges keep you energized.

4. Challenges are Driving Forces for Innovations and the foundation blocks upon which Successes, Achievements and Progresses evolve

5. A life without challenges is a dull, boring, complacent and uninspiring one.

6. In challenges are opportunities to keep refreshed and re-invigorated.


1. So our prayers should not be to have a challenge-free life but for God to equip us with abilities to overcome.

2. Don’t create Success and revel in it in a state of inertia.

3. Always view challenges positively. God Has equipped us with the resources, skills and abilities to make a difference.


4 Put a shark 🐋🐋 in your tank and see how far you can really go…


Professor: Yet you still believe in Him?

Student : Yes.

Professor : According to Empirical, Testable, Demonstrable Protocol, Science says your GOD doesn’t exist. What do you say to that, son?

Student : Nothing. I only have my faith.

Professor: Yes, faith. And that is the problem Science has.

Student : Professor, is there such a thing as heat?

Professor: Yes.

Student : And is there such a thing as cold?

Professor: Yes.

Student : No, sir. There isn’t.

(The lecture theater became very quiet with this turn of events.)

Student : Sir, you can have lots of heat, even more heat, superheat, mega heat, white heat, a little heat or no heat. But we don’t have anything called cold. We can hit 458 degrees below zero which is no heat, but we can’t go any further after that. There is no such thing as cold. Cold is only a word we use to describe the absence of heat. We cannot measure cold. Heat is energy. Cold is not the opposite of heat, sir, just the absence of it.

(There was pin-drop silence in the lecture theater.)

Student : What about darkness, Professor? Is there such a thing as darkness?

Professor: Yes. What is night if there isn’t darkness?

Student : You’re wrong again, sir. Darkness is the absence of something. You can have low light, normal light, bright light, flashing light. But if you have no light constantly, you have nothing and its called darkness, isn’t it? In reality, darkness isn’t. If it is, well you would be able to make darkness darker, wouldn’t you?

Professor: So what is the point you are making, young man ?

Student : Sir, my point is your philosophical premise is flawed.

Professor: Flawed ? Can you explain how?

Student : Sir, you are working on the premise of duality. You argue there is life and then there is death, a good GOD and a bad GOD. You are viewing the concept of GOD as something finite, something we can measure. Sir, Science can’t even explain a thought. It uses electricity and magnetism, but has never seen, much less fully understood either one. To view death as the opposite of life is to be ignorant of the fact that death cannot exist as a substantive thing.

Death is not the opposite of life: just the absence of it. Now tell me, Professor, do you teach your students that they evolved from a monkey?

Professor: If you are referring to the natural evolutionary process, yes, of course, I do.

Student : Have you ever observed evolution with your own eyes, sir?

(The Professor shook his head with a smile, beginning to realize where the argument was going.)

Student : Since no one has ever observed the process of evolution at work and cannot even prove that this process is an on-going endeavor. Are you not teaching your opinion, sir? Are you not a scientist but a preacher?

(The class was in uproar.)

Student : Is there anyone in the class who has ever seen the Professor’s brain?

(The class broke out into laughter. )

Student : Is there anyone here who has ever heard the Professor’s brain, felt it, touched or smelt it? No one appears to have done so. So, according to the established Rules of Empirical, Stable, Demonstrable Protocol, Science says that you have no brain, sir. With all due respect, sir, how do we then trust your lectures, sir?

(The room was silent. The Professor stared at the student, his face unfathomable.)

Professor: I guess you’ll have to take them on faith, son.

Student : That is it sir … Exactly ! The link between man & GOD is FAITH. That is all that keeps things alive and moving.


I believe you have enjoyed the conversation. And if so, you’ll probably want your friends / colleagues to enjoy the same, won’t you?

Forward this


Lassa fever
Fact sheet N°179
Updated March 2015
13 March 2015
Key facts
Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness of 1-4 weeks duration that
occurs in West Africa.
The Lassa virus is transmitted to humans via contact with food or household
items contaminated with rodent urine or faeces.
Person-to-person infections and laboratory transmission can also occur,
particularly in hospitals lacking adequate infection prevent and control measures.
Lassa fever is known to be endemic in Benin (where it was diagnosed for the first
time in November 2014), Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and parts of Nigeria, but
probably exists in other West African countries as well.
The overall case-fatality rate is 1%. Observed case-fatality rate among patients
hospitalized with severe cases of Lassa fever is 15%.
Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves
Though first described in the 1950s, the virus causing Lassa disease was not
identified until 1969. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the virus
family Arenaviridae .
About 80% of people who become infected with Lassa virus have no symptoms.
One in five infections result in severe disease, where the virus affects several organs
such as the liver, spleen and kidneys.
Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease, meaning that humans become infected from
contact with infected animals. The animal reservoir, or host, of Lassa virus is a
rodent of the genus Mastomys, commonly known as the “multimammate rat.”
Mastomys rats infected with Lassa virus do not become ill, but they can shed the
virus in their urine and faeces.
Because the clinical course of the disease is so variable, detection of the disease in
affected patients has been difficult. However, when presence of the disease is
confirmed in a community, prompt isolation of affected patients, good infection
protection and control practices and rigorous contact tracing can stop outbreaks.
Symptoms of Lassa fever
The incubation period of Lassa fever ranges from 6-21 days. The onset of the
disease, when it is symptomatic, is usually gradual, starting with fever, general
weakness, and malaise. After a few days, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, chest
pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, cough, and abdominal pain may follow. In severe
cases facial swelling, fluid in the lung cavity, bleeding from the mouth, nose, vagina
or gastrointestinal tract and low blood pressure may develop. Protein may be noted
in the urine. Shock, seizures, tremor, disorientation, and coma may be seen in the
later stages. Deafness occurs in 25% of patients who survive the disease. In half of
these cases, hearing returns partially after 1-3 months. Transient hair loss and gait
disturbance may occur during recovery.
Death usually occurs within 14 days of onset in fatal cases. The disease is especially
severe late in pregnancy, with maternal death and/or fetal loss occurring in greater
than 80% of cases during the third trimester.
Humans usually become infected with Lassa virus from exposure to urine or faeces
of infected Mastomys rats. Lassa virus may also be spread between humans
through direct contact with the blood, urine, faeces, or other bodily secretions of a
person infected with Lassa fever. There is no epidemiological evidence supporting
airborne spread between humans. Person-to-person transmission occurs in both
community and health-care settings, where the virus may be spread by contaminated
medical equipment, such as re-used needles. Sexual transmission of Lassa virus has
been reported.
Lassa fever occurs in all age groups and both sexes. Persons at greatest risk are
those living in rural areas where Mastomys are usually found, especially in
communities with poor sanitation or crowded living conditions. Health workers are at
risk if caring for Lassa fever patients in the absence of proper barrier nursing and
infection control practices.
Because the symptoms of Lassa fever are so varied and non-specific, clinical
diagnosis is often difficult, especially early in the course of the disease. Lassa fever
is difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola virus
disease; and many other diseases that cause fever, including malaria, shigellosis,
typhoid fever and yellow fever.
Definitive diagnosis requires testing that is available only in specialized laboratories.
Laboratory specimens may be hazardous and must be handled with extreme care.
Lassa virus infections can only be diagnosed definitively in the laboratory using the
following tests:
antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
antigen detection tests
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
virus isolation by cell culture.
Treatment and vaccines
The antiviral drug ribavirin seems to be an effective treatment for Lassa fever if given
early on in the course of clinical illness. There is no evidence to support the role of
ribavirin as post-exposure prophylactic treatment for Lassa fever.
There is currently no vaccine that protects against Lassa fever.
Prevention and control
Prevention of Lassa fever relies on promoting good “community hygiene” to
discourage rodents from entering homes. Effective measures include storing grain
and other foodstuffs in rodent-proof containers, disposing of garbage far from the
home, maintaining clean households and keeping cats. Because Mastomys are so
abundant in endemic areas, it is not possible to completely eliminate them from the
environment. Family members should always be careful to avoid contact with blood
and body fluids while caring for sick persons.
In health-care settings, staff should always apply standard infection prevention and
control precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis.
These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective
equipment (to block splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection
practices and safe burial practices.
Health workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Lassa fever should
apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood
and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and
bedding. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with Lassa fever, health-
care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and
goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some
Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from humans and animals for
investigation of Lassa virus infection should be handled by trained staff and
processed in suitably equipped laboratories.
On rare occasions, travellers from areas where Lassa fever is endemic export the
disease to other countries. Although malaria, typhoid fever, and many other tropical
infections are much more common, the diagnosis of Lassa fever should be
considered in febrile patients returning from West Africa, especially if they have had
exposures in rural areas or hospitals in countries where Lassa fever is known to be
endemic. Health-care workers seeing a patient suspected to have Lassa fever should
immediately contact local and national experts for advice and to arrange for
laboratory testing.


UPDATES: Haliru Bello Arraigned, Metuh Quizzed by EFCC. UTME: JAMB Registrer expresses worry over discriminatory cut-off marks CBN to sell $10,000 to BDCs as naira gains strength. Nigeria contributes 15 million to 3.5 billion global traffic. Oil prices fall to $36.69 per barrel. Workers threaten showdown with Kogi government over unpaid salaries. FIFA ethics committee recommends 9-year ban for suspended Secretary General. Death toll over Lassa fever hits 3 in Taraba. Lassa fever claims 2 in Rivers. Beware Of IMF, TUC Warns FG. Ajimobi Chides LG Chiefs Over Mounting Refuse. Alaafin names Aregbesola ‘Omoluabi of Yorubaland’. Suicide Bomber Kills 5 Returnee IDPs, Injures Many In Borno. Swearing-in: Kogi Gov-elect Constitutes Inauguration 3-man C’ttee. Shi’ite Women Demand Release Of El-Zakzaky, Wife, Others. 2016 budget has not been withdrawn —Presidency. Saraki meets IMF boss, Lagarde, today. Banks’ credit to domestic economy rises by 2.7% to N17.176bn. Zaria killings: Reps’ panel to submit report next week. PDP declares war over Bayelsa rerun. We won’t scrap NYSC, says FG. Ajimobi makes a U-turn, okays Ladoja, others’ promotion. CapitalOneCup SF 1st leg – Result: Stoke City 0-1 Liverpool.

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